As a member of NYPD's stakeout unit, he personally shot 13 armed robbers, watched his partner shoot 5 more and double teamed another 1/2 dozen with said partner. The unit stopped 280 armed robbers, and only 'had" to shoot 40 of them. Even tho the robbers were trapped and facing life in SINGSING, a REALLY bad prison, they chose to surrender rather than be shot dead. Many of those who WERE shot would have surrendered, had they known what the deal was. but they turned, gun in hand at the challenge,a nd were shot before they COULD drop their guns.

If you, as a civilian, are smart enough to get the gun pointed at the man and NOTICED, in time and from far enough away to preclude a disarm, and leave the punk a way out, the odds are 10 to 1 that you won't have to fire at all, and MISSES have change the mind of MANY an attacker, too. :-) the NRA proves this, every month, with posted clippings in their magazine, the American Rifleman. Poor hits, with feeble loads, have done so, also. So the "need" to get lots of swift, powerful hits on the chest is mostly bs, folks. I've pointed guns at men 5x in my life, and all of them FROZE in place. Almost any cop will tell you the same. Nobody wants to be shot.