Select Proper Hearing Protection for Shooting to Avoid Permanent Hearing Loss

Select Proper Hearing Protection for Shooting to Avoid Permanent Hearing Loss
Select Proper Hearing Protection for Shooting to Avoid Permanent Hearing Loss

I learned over the years, from working around loud industrial plant noises and from seeing my Dad experience terrible ear pain, continuous ringing in his ears, and substantial hearing loss from job-related noises and from regularly shooting firearms, that serious hearing problems can develop quickly. Sometimes new and younger shooters don’t pay as much attention as they should to protecting their hearing, forgoing hearing protection for just that one time… or focusing only on eye protection. I certainly consider both eye and ear protection important and mandatory for shooting. For me and my firearms students, hearing protection is mandatory at the range.

Noise Hazard from Shooting

The noise from gunfire is one of the most hazardous non-occupational noises that people are exposed to. It’s possible that a single gunshot heard by an unprotected ear can lead to immediate and permanent hearing loss, often accompanied by tinnitus or ringing, hissing or humming in the ears. The Cleveland Clinic and the Sight and Hearing Association report that hearing loss can definitely result from a single gunshot or from noise over an extended time. According to Dr. William Clark, senior research scientist of the Noise Laboratory at the Central Institute for the Deaf in St. Louis, “the damage caused by one shot from a .357 magnum pistol, which can expose a shooter to 165 dB for 2msec, is equivalent to over 40 hours in a noisy workplace.” Dr. Thomas Krammer, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana echoes this. Here are estimated average dB noise levels for gun calibers:

  • .25 ACP – 155.0 dB
  • .32 LONG – 152.4 dB
  • .32 ACP – 153.5 dB
  • .380 – 157.7 dB
  • 9mm – 159.8 dB
  • .38 S&W – 153.5 dB
  • .38 Spl – 156.3 dB
  • .357 Magnum – 164.3 dB
  • .40 S&W – 156.5 dB
  • .41 Magnum – 163.2 dB
  • .44 S&W Magnum – 164.5 dB
  • .44 Spl – 155.9 dB
  • .45 ACP – 157.0 dB
  • .45 COLT – 154.7 dB
  • 12 Gauge Shotgun – 155 dB
  • .22 Pistol or Rifle – 140 dB
  • M-16 – 160 dB

Generally, noise becomes damaging to hearing above a certain amplitude level for a certain duration of time, usually cited as about 90 dB for 8 hours. The OSHA permissible noise level exposure is 115 dB for just 15 minutes. Both amplitude and intensity duration are related to a sound’s power and possible hearing damage. So without hearing protection, listening to rock music at 90 dB for 30 minutes may not be as damaging as working in an industrial plant environment or hearing continuous gunshots at 90 dB for 6 hours or so. As the amplitude increases, the time duration your ears can tolerate noise without damage goes down. For example, at 115 dB the duration drops to 15 minutes or less and the pain threshold begins usually at about 130 dB. A dangerous sound is usually considered to be anything over 85dB for an extended period of time, without protection, but a single loud gunshot for a short time can also be very damaging. Most gun shots average a dB level of 150 to 160, as the above chart indicates. The normal conversation benchmark is 60 dB, while a jet takeoff is about 120 dB, and a jackhammer has 130 dB. I recall a few times at the shooting range when I forgot to put my hearing protector muffs on and the resulting loud bang and how my ears were ringing just from one occurrence.
Dr. Michael Stewart, Professor of Audiology at the University of Central Michigan and the American Speech-Language Hearing Association, gets specific and says that exposure to noise greater than 140 dB can permanently damage hearing, without protection. This supports Dr. Clark’s above research. Stewart says that almost all firearms create noise that is over the 140-dB level. A small .22-caliber gun can produce noise around 140 dB, while big-bore rifles and pistols can produce sound over 175 dB. Firing guns in a place where sounds can reverberate, or bounce off walls and other structures, like inside a building or some indoor shooting ranges, can make noises louder and increase the risk of hearing loss. Also, adding muzzle brakes or other modifications can make the firearm louder. Dr. Stewart says that shooters who do not wear hearing protection while shooting can suffer a severe hearing loss with as little as one shot, if the conditions are right. So just because you might have shot without hearing protection in the past, and without apparent hearing loss, does not mean you might not damage your hearing the next time. So, it’s important to wear hearing protection EVERY time you shoot a gun to avoid possible hearing damage. Once your hearing is damaged, it won’t come back.

Noise Reduction Rating (NRR)

Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) is the hearing protection rating method used in the U.S. The current range of NRRs available in the U.S. market extends from 0 to 33 decibels. The NRR is derived from an involved calculation that begins with attenuation test results from at least ten laboratory subjects across a range of frequencies. Two standard deviations are factored in to account for individual user variation, and several corrections and cushions are included to make the NRR applicable to a broader population, and a wide variety of noise sources. The NRR is the most standardized method currently in use for describing a hearing protector’s attenuation in a single number and estimates the amount of protection achievable by 98% of users in a laboratory setting when hearing protectors are properly fitted. The higher the NRR the greater the noise level is reduced.

Check the noise reduction rating (NRR) of your hearing protector. All hearing protection devices are rated according to how much noise (in decibels) they will reduce for the wearer. While wearing hearing protection your exposure to noise is equal to the total noise level minus the NRR of the hearing protectors in use. For example, if you were exposed to 80db of noise but were wearing earplugs with an NRR of 29, your actual noise exposure would only be 51dB. For general use, look for NRR of 25 or greater. Actual noise reduction will probably be about half of the manufacturer’s NRR, because ratings were obtained under perfect lab conditions.

Types of Hearing Protection:

  • Passive Ear Plugs – These are basically soft plugs that are usually made from plastic or some type of foam based substance. These plugs are placed into the ear opening and they serve to dampen any high volume sound that the ear is exposed to. They are called “passive” because these plugs don’t utilize any electronic devices that damper noises. Ear plugs are by far the least expensive form of ear protection, but do they actually work well? The sound is dampened a bit, but can still be quite loud. The plugs help some, but they really don’t protect your ears as well as they can be protected.
  • Passive Hearing Protection – This model generally is comprised of ear muffs that have a cup which encompasses the entire ear. The muffs are usually attached by a headband or headpiece of some type. Like the passive ear plugs, this model won’t have the electronic sound dampening device. The ear muff style design is nice as the cup has a seal that protects the entire ear from the noise versus the ear plugs which only partially protect the ear canal itself. Most ear muff models have the ability to be adjusted, although some of the less expensive ear muff models may not have this feature. Unfortunately, ear muffs of this design dampen all or most sound, so the wearer can’t hear anyone speaking or any other important sounds.
  • Electronic Noise-Cancelling Hearing Protection – This design incorporates an ear muff style and integrates it with electronic technology that reduces the noise down to a level that isn’t harmful to the human ear. The entire sound dampening process takes place faster than the blink of an eye as the suppressed sound is transmitted to the wearer almost instantly. The best feature of electronic hearing protection is the ability to hear everything that is going on around you while you are shooting. In many situations, such as on the range, during training, or while hunting; this can be a great benefit. Of course, due to the technology needed, electronic hearing protection tends to be the most expensive of all the hearing protection devices. A number of the higher end electronic models may have other enhancements such as a separate volume control for each side of the ear muffs, enhanced adjustability, a battery saver feature to conserve battery use, and ambient sound magnification. The ambient sound magnification is a great benefit for hunters as it amplifies noise to a degree that is far greater than the naked ear can hear. At the same time, the augmented sound is instantly dampened when a shot is fired.

Electronic Hearing Protection Headsets vs. Passive Hearing Protection Earmuffs

Both Electronic Headsets and classic earmuffs have advantages and disadvantages. Earmuffs offer comfort without any direct pressure inside the ear canal. The three common styles of earmuffs are the standard over-the-head, cap-mounted and behind-the-neck. The cap-mounted earmuffs are design to mount directly to most hard hats that have side-accessory slots. Behind-the-neck style can also be used while wearing headwear. Classic earmuffs are less expensive than electronic headsets and tend to have a slightly higher NRR.

Electronic Earmuffs provide the same protection as standard earmuffs but also offer other special features. These headsets allow you to protect your hearing from loud noises while still being able to listen to low sound levels such as conversations. Others features besides distort free amplification can include audio jacks, automatic shut offs and volume controls. Electronic headsets are available in multiple models like traditional earmuffs, but are more expensive and require batteries.

Best Hearing ProtectionWhat’s the Best Hearing Protection Choice for You?

Assess your basic requirements and match them to the appropriate option above. Generally, I would not recommend the basic passive ear plugs. Although they are certainly better than nothing, they provide only the minimum of protection. If you shoot infrequently or don’t have the need for the additional capabilities of an electronic model, basic passive ear muffs will most likely work OK. If you are a active shooter or hunter, the electronic models can be a worthwhile purchase with all their added features. I switched from passive headphones to an electronic model for almost all purposes and don’t regret it. Some acceptable brands of hearing protectors to consider are Radians, Peltors, Pro Ears, Winchester, Caldwell, Howard Leight, Browning, and Remington. Prices range from just under $20 for passive earmuffs to up to $250 and more for electronic headsets. Generally, you should be able to get a decent pair of passive earmuffs for about $20 and a decent electronic set for about $50. At the end of the day, the choice really comes down to your own personal preferences, frequency of shooting, and needs.

Although I own several different hearing protection devices, I prefer electronic noise canceling headsets that detect sharp, loud noises, allow me to hear my students clearly, and cancel the volume in the headset for a split second when I shoot. Of course, I need to regularly hear and understand my students talking to me at the range and I shoot very regularly. My electronic headset cancels loud noises up to an acceptable level and also increases the volume of ambient sounds, so I actually hear better. Standard ear muffs deaden sound to a decent level of safety, but hearing low-level sounds is not possible. When plinking for fun at my outdoor range, I might use standard passive earmuffs, as they are usually lighter and a little more comfortable than my amplified type. When I’m teaching a class of students at the outdoor range where it is important to hear student-shooters ask questions, I wear electronic earmuffs. In very noisy environments, such as when shooting very loud (often magnum) firearms or at an indoor range, I use both earplugs inside of earmuffs, for maximum hearing protection. When dual hearing protectors are used, the combined NRR provides approximately 5 – 10 decibels more than the higher rated of the two devices. For example, using disposable ear plugs (NRR 29dB) with ear muffs (NRR 27dB) would provide a Noise Reduction Rating of approximately 39 decibels. I had a student who wore a hearing aid and she found it best for her condition to use both plugs and muffs. Shooters should match the level of hearing protection required to their need, situation, and priorities. Most importantly, always wear some sort of ear protection when shooting, in addition to proper eye protection. Your top priority is self-preservation.

Protect Yourself– Select and ALWAYS Use Proper Hearing and Eye Protection for Shooting!

© 2013 Col Benjamin Findley. All Rights Reserved. This article may not be reprinted or reproduced in whole or in part by mechanical means, photocopying, electronic reproduction, scanning, or any other means without prior written permission. For copyright information, contact Col Ben Findley at
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"Col Ben" is retired with 30 years service in the U.S. Air Force, with joint services Special Ops duty and training, and is Air Force qualified as "Expert" in small arms. He is a Vietnam-era Veteran. Ben is an experienced NRA-Certified Pistol Instructor, NRA Range Safety Officer, and FL Concealed Carry License Instructor. Ben recently wrote the book "Concealed Carry and Handgun Essentials for Personal Protection" (second printing) with 57 comprehensive Chapters about concealed carry and handgun principles, techniques, and tips for both experienced and new shooters. His reference book is endorsed by several organizations and is available on his website at Contact him at
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(Sigh!) This old Navy vet heartily agrees with the blogger’s advice! It was about 55 years ago – 1958, as I recall. I was a Fire Control Tech in the Navy aboard the USS Putnam DD-757. We were on a Med cruise. The skipper decided it was a good idea to give small arms practice to the crew – in case we had to go through the Suez Canal – which was then a hotspot. We were assembled in groups on the fantail and shown the .45 pistol and the M-1 and Carbine. A 5 inch powder case was bouncing around at the end of a line in the wake. We were shown how to load and fire these weapons. Did the Navy (in its wisdom) give us any hearing protection, such as ear plugs??? I mean the gun crews got them! No, we nongunners got nothing. A lot of us went to Sick Bay within a few days, complaining of ringing in the ears. It took WEEKS for the ringing to subside…and – more than 55 years later – loud noises still trigger that ringing! ALWAYS wear hearing protection!


The VA spends about $2 billion dollars a year in relation to hearing loss. Most of which are preventable by the simple use of hearing protection.

The military currently, and does, issue soft foam ear plugs to everyone. However, not everyone wears it and a vast majority people don’t fully insert the plugs. With advancements of electronic hearing protection, I can’t believe we’re not issuing them by the millions and giving each person access to them.

If I ever have a kid who wants to join the military, I’ll be sure to buy him/her a nice pair of electronic ear protection. You’re only in the military for a short time, even shorter if you’re deaf. You’ll spend the rest of your life without hearing and that’s terrible.

Anthony Soro

what was that I didnt hear you to well,

Shepard Humphries

Thanks for a great article! I love my Pro Ears Gold muffs, as does my wife (hers are pink). The MSA Sordin’s Pro X are the same $250 to $300-ish price tag and have slightly inferior electronic technology, but their gel ear pads are very comfortable for 14-hour days at the range…


First, just an ironic observation: I have paid $200-plus to hear good musical sound in a set of headphones. It hits my funny-bone that I might pay $200-plus to block out all sound.
Second, effective protection is not that expensive. I use foam ear-plugs and ear-muffs in combination, as mentioned above. With a cheap pair of ear-muffs from WalMart, the cost of good protection is about $9.00.

Jeff Brown

You’ll pay $200+ to get the best sound but not to protect your hearing so you can hear that sound……makes sense.


Cheap double layer is better than the most expensive single layer you can buy. All that expense on electronic protection is just so you can hear people talking. It is always a hearing protection compromise.

Marry Root

before I looked at the draft of $8942, I have faith that my father in law could actualey bringing in money in there spare time on their apple labtop.. there friends cousin started doing this less than eighteen months and resently repayed the dept on there villa and bought a great Lexus LS400. go to, jump15.comCHECK IT OUT


Thanks, great article. I use PlugFones at about 24db and cover with Peltor tactical 100s at about the same with electronic dampening. I like to suit up with these while mowing for a comfortable afternoon of work. Just saw the db rating of my 9mm (159,***) I didn’t realize the 9mm was up there in the category with the Mags. Since the 9mm was rated so high on the noise graph I may need to reconsider my hearing protection. I’m glad I don’t have to use inside ranges since I live in the country and can shoot almost anywhere I can set up a target.
Thanks again, you’ve got us thinking more about hearing protection.


I need to correct you on your statement “For example, if you were exposed to 80db of noise but were wearing earplugs with an NRR of 29, your actual noise exposure would only be 51dB.”

If the NRR of hearing protectors is 29dB you need to Subtract 7 dB from the NRR rating. So
29 dB – 7 dB = 22 dB. Then Divide by 2: 22 ÷ 2 = 11dB

Subtract 11dB from the exposed db in your case 80db (80-11=69db) and not 51db. You cannot subtract the NRR rating from the exposed DB.

Subtract 7 dB from the NRR: 29 dB – 7 dB = 22 dB
Divide by 2: 22 ÷ 2 = 11 dB
Subtract 11 dB from the noise
exposure: 80dB – 11 dB = 82 dB


So if you’re wearing ear plugs, and exposed to 80db, you’re going to get 2 more dbs so now you have 82 db? That’s nuts.

James Reese

That doesn’t sound logical.


I disagree that passive is better than electronic from a hearing protection standpoint. Unless you buy the most expensive models their shut off times are not fast enough to eliminate all the loud sounds, and they are almost always rated several db lower than the highest rated passive muffs. There’s a lot of articles pushing that electronic protection provides more hearing protection even with a lower db rating and it’s simply not true. It’s just the industry trying to push more expensive product.

There’s no way a 26 db rated electronic set of muffs protects your hearing as well as a 34 db set of passive muffs, period. You can get passive muffs up to 34 db now, combine those with 33db plugs and you are getting maximum hearing protection.

The advantage to electronic muffs is being able to hear students, range commands etc. just keep in mind that you are sacrificing hearing protection for that convenience. A lot of guys use the higher rated electronic muffs turned up with earplugs indoors and that’s not a horrible solution when you need to hear commands clearly but still want good hearing protection.